The flowing water energy is the most important alternative to energy produced from perishable sources.
Only less than 100 years ago, man learned to use the power of flowing water as a source of electricity.
Hydraulic electricity accounts for about 20% of all electricity produced worldwide.
The amount of energy produced from running water depends on the amount of water, the intensity of the flow and the flow.
Since these data do not always exist, they build large dams.
This energy is generated by the flow of water from a great height.
The dams store the water in reservoirs and when energy is needed, they open narrow passages to the water and allow them to fall through a turbine connected to a generator that generates electricity.
Electricity generation at hydroelectric stations is cheap, but primary investments in hydroelectric stations are relatively high, and such a plant is considered “rigid” in terms of its location factors.
The advantages of electricity produced from non-perishable hydroelectric sources are:
It depends on the source of non-biodegradable energy (water), its easy, rapid and inexpensive transport (after expensive initial investments).
It can also be regulated by opening / closing dams and using it clean and harmless to the environment.
The drawbacks of electricity generated from non-perishable hydroelectric sources are the loss of energy over a distance.
Therefore, the maximum distance to transport it is usually no more than 700 km.
In addition, the initial costs of setting up an electricity network of this type are very expensive.
In addition, it can not be stored and consumed at the moment, its location is limited only to a large source of running water
Due to the high costs of hydroelectric power plants are common in developed countries.
The position of the hydroelectric stations is: an area of quantity
Precipitation of 750 mm average rainfall per year.
Suitable geological structure: rocks that prevent seepage and allow for a maximum reservoir and the creation of water reservoirs.
Suitable topographic conditions: strong gradients, waterfalls and flow depths
Which allow the construction of dams and proximity to the consumer and population centers.
Hydroelectric power generation in various parts of the world.
United States: In the 1970s, there were about 100 hydropower stations that supplied energy.
After the 1973 oil crisis, hydroelectric stations were added, especially in the northeastern part of the factory.
In this area, the rivers flow many waters throughout the year, and the deep channels are driven by hard, hard rock, which is a good foundation for dam construction.
The largest hydroelectric plants were established in the West, the Rocky Mountains and especially the Columbia and Colorado rivers.
The Columbia River and its tributaries provide about a third of the country’s hydroelectric output.
The largest plant is the Grand Sonic on the Columbia River.
In the Colorado River, Hoover Dam is one of the largest in the world, providing water and electricity for long distances, especially California.
Other important plants are the Parker Dam on Colorado, from which water reaches Los Angeles and San Diego, and the Imperial Dam.
The largest of the hydroelectric plants located on the Great Lakes is the Niagara Plant, located on the waters of the St. Lawrence River, which connects Lake Ontario to Lake Erie and is also an important transport route.
Western European countries: Significant development in the use of hydroelectric energy occurred especially after World War II, in the mountainous regions of the Scandinavian countries, in the Alps and in the Pyrenees.
In Norway, this energy utilization is the highest and reaches almost 100% for generating electricity